0000006334 00000 n Clear all. 0000008357 00000 n Fuel gas properties. C'���sh@OѦ�nvo�|������� ���SDkN�Lj��gŶ�� �V�YeU. Pentane - Thermophysical Properties - Chemical, physical and thermal properties of pentane, also called n-pentane. Specifications for reference (certification, homologation) fuels for both light-duty [Directive 1998/69/EC] and heavy-duty vehicles [Directive 1999/96/EC] introduced a sulfur limit of 300 ppm effective year 2000 (Euro 3) and 50 ppm from 2005 (Euro 4), Table 1.1.. ��H�rA��\]R$JeS�v� ]w�(��B)v���U�Q����Wq| Fuel Properties Comparison. Additives and blending agents are added to the hydrocarbon Fuel consumptionand Pyrotechnics are also covered separately. The SI (metric) unit for mass is the kg. Select Fuels. 0000008836 00000 n 1 atm): Air: 70: 0.00233: 1.64e-4: 20: 1.204: 1.51e-5: Carbon Dioxide: 68: 0.00355: 8.65e-5: 20: 1.83: 8.03e-6: Nitrogen: 68: 0.00226: 1.63e-4: 20: 1.16: 1.52e-5: Helium: 68: 3.23e-4: 1.27e-3: 20: 0.166: 1.17e-4 Still others report that small additions of methanol increase the flame speed of gasoline. 0000010332 00000 n 5 0 obj 0000013590 00000 n GASOLINE may be incompatible with strong oxidizing agents such as nitric acid, peroxides, and perchlorates. figure 1 – premium to regular retail price differential . The mixture is easily adjustable at all flame stages. Although the formula varies, it is close to C7.4H13.7 with a formula weight in the The Adiabatic Process of an Ideal Gas. 0000017817 00000 n a��:n?�ڢ*����'����f��}�|e�Ԇg+���*Z@��rs�DJP�WVVIe�H�2e�ُV�Qg?J��8���(���$Vq\��(�S�K� stream ��#�$��J��G�j�S�������Ꝼ����Q��`w��%.�1M���ͳK�$�XB�1�nt��T���*��]��#E�����?f� Gasoline (/ ˈ ɡ æ s ə l iː n /), or petrol (/ ˈ p ɛ t r ə l /) (see the etymology for naming differences) is a clear petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines.It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Fuels.pdf. Mandatory environmental regulations for several fuel properties were first introduced in 1998 (Directive 98/70/EC), and were revised in 2003 (Directive 2003/17/EC) and in 2009 (Directive 2009/30/EC). ETBE (ethanol tertiary butyl ether, C 6H Digester Gas (Sewage or Biogas) 0.062 Ethane C 2H 6 30.07 1.2641) 0.07891) Ethyl Alcohol 46.07 Ethyl Chloride 64.52 Ethylene C 2H 4 28.03 1.2602) 0.07862) Helium He 4.02 0.16641) 0.010391) N-Heptane 100.20 Gas Formula Molecular weight Density - ρ-kg/m3 lb m/ft3 1) NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure - is defined as air at Not affected by aqueous solutions of acids, alkalis, most oxidizing agents, and most reducing agents. All of the fuel oil classes discussed in this Profile are refined from crude petroleum and may be RVP is an abbreviation for "Reid vapor pressure," a common measure of and generic term for gasoline volatility. ISO 12213-3:1997 Natural gas -- Calculation of compression factor -- Part 3: Calculation using physical properties ISO 13443:1996 Natural gas -- Standard reference conditions ISO 13443:1996/Cor 1:1997 (Applies to French version only) ISO 13686:1998 Natural gas -- Quality designation AlternativeFuels*Data*Center*–*Fuel*PropertiesComparison*!www.afdc.energy.gov!! Gasoline is a petroleum-derived product comprising a mixture of liquid aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ranging between C4 and C12 carbon atoms with the boiling range of 30–225°C. Information regarding the chemical identity of fuel oils is located in Table 3-l. Information on the composition of selected fuel oils, specifically fuel oil no. Related Topics . Density is usually written as: ρ = lbm/ft3 The density for a liquid is normally taken from a table. 0000012709 00000 n 0000014895 00000 n %%EOF State-by-State RVP Table; Overview: Volatility is the property of a liquid fuel that defines its evaporation characteristics. 0000013704 00000 n Some table values are expressed in ranges to represent typical fuel variations that are encountered in the field 1020 Road Vehicles; Nonroad Vehicles; Road Vehicles. Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more ; Thermodynamics - Effects of work, heat and energy on systems; Related Documents . If you're more familiar with dynamic viscosity µ (greek letter mu), then it may help to know that v = µ/p.. Table of Fluid Properties (Liquids and Gases) Charring may occur followed by ignition of unreacted hydrocarbon and other nearby combustibles. In this article. 0000009131 00000 n It is predominantly a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and olefins. An introduction on fuels and fuel types, including some relevant properties, can be found apart in . Gas Formula Molecular weight Density - ρ- kg/m3 lb m/ft3 Acetylene (ethyne) C 2H 2 26 1.092 1) 1.170 2) 0.0682 0.0729 Air 29 1.2051) 1.293 2) 0.07521) 0.0806 Ammonia NH … Consequently, no two batches of gasoline are ever exactly alike. A fuel gas/air flame works with a lower temperature (due to the amount of nitrogen in the air). Data include certain chemical and physical properties of gasoline from 1999 – 2019. Plain gasoline is a mixture of hydrocarbon substances of various formulas and widely-varying formula weights. What follows is just a collection of Table of gas properties - density, molar mass, gas constant, specific heat, viscosity 0000001156 00000 n figure 2 … Fluid & Gas Properties 330 Fluid & Gas Properties FLUID DENSITY Density is the ratio of mass to volume. Gasoline was at first produced by distillation, simply separating the volatile, more valuable fractions of crude petroleum.Later processes, designed to raise the yield of gasoline from crude oil, split large molecules into smaller ones by processes known as cracking. 2 and kerosene, is presented in Table 3-2. !!!!!1! 0000006905 00000 n table 1 – crude oil distillation products . 0000003136 00000 n 303 43 �G�5��&�ր��91^ɔ#$��F%�A��i��6��5�%��?r�U��6��%�����%������g��$߾������Ɯ������R5��`e(8�y���ͦ@xç`�+��~E]�=����+ٿ�2�/i�QL|�����X~�]��vG` h���I�wz���.�A��`#��=����x5f��7����3^�^�o��Y:8w9���D�`���ԡ>��ß�~M�A���p赳lI�D�G���`� ӷQTh��S�0%��j&KXtG�e��S �D�u���EB '.¢�!�c"+�Q΢��",�#�^D׌�Bg6q�0S 3XtGCpZ�C8(�&�m&����'�a�MX��$h���c~H�B��� The English (U.S. Anhydrous ethanol (<0.6% water) is required for gasoline mixtures, whereas for use-alone up to 10% water can be accepted. 0000003941 00000 n The applicable fuel properties include lead and sulfur content for gasoline, and cetane number, sulfur content, and FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) biodiesel content for diesel. Thermodynamic Properties of Carbon Dioxide R744. <<33156E437F10104B9B279A02EF103004>]>> table 3 – ethanol properties . A few years later, in 1859, crude oil was discovered in Pennsylvania in the United States. 0000005784 00000 n xref Accurate thermophysical properties are available for several fluids. Using Physical and Chemical Properties To Manage Flammable Liquid Hazards [R Roberts, Roberts & Roberts, February 5, 2011] ... Properties of these materials are listed in Table 1.1 ... greater than that for unleaded gasoline; others sources state the reverse. ASTM's petroleum standards are instrumental in the evaluation and assessment of the physical, mechanical, rheological, thermal, and chemical properties of crude oils, lubricating grease, automobile and aviation gasoline, hydrocarbons, and other naturally occurring energy resources used for various industrial applications. 0000010053 00000 n Certain of its properties are subject to specification limits, the composition is not. Table of Contents Table A.1SI Polynomial Constants for c P (kJ/(kmole∙K)) 3 Table A.2SI Specific Heats for Ideal Gases in SI Units 4 Table A.3SI Ideal Gas Properties of Air in SI Units 10 Table A.4SI Ideal Gas Properties of N 2 in SI Units 15 Table A.5SI Ideal Gas Properties of O 2 in SI Units 20 Table A.6SI Ideal Gas Properties of H 2 Water properties (95 ko) Boiling water (100°C to 200°C) (96 ko) Boiling water (200°C to 300°C) (95 ko) Steam (0 to 30 bar) (76 ko) Steam (30 to 100 bar) (78 ko) Pressure: Atmospheric ... Any recopy of this table on another website or in another form of publication is completely forbidden. 0000012358 00000 n 0000011916 00000 n The first modern oil refineries were built by Ignacy Łukasiewicz near Jasło, Poland (then under Austrian rule) in 1854–56 [Frank 2005]. Specific Notes [1] Standard Chemical Formulas represent idealized fuels. Customary Unit) for mass is the slug. From: TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 2017. Fuel Trends Report: Gasoline 1995 – 2005 (PDF) (268 pp, 35.9 MB, EPA420-R08-002, January 2008) Fuel Trends Report: Gasoline 2006 – 2016 (PDF) (123 pp, 2.15 MB, EPA-420-R-17-005, October 2017) Important notes regarding the data include: The data shows how gasoline properties have changed due to the implementation of EPA fuel quality standards over time as … https://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Gasoline.html Select the fuel and properties of interest. trailer << /Length 6 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerant R134a. The fuel used in the engine is required to have certain characteristics. 2 and kerosene, is presented in Table 3-2. 0000005670 00000 n EIA heating values for motor gasoline and LPG weight the average Btu depending on fuel mixture used in a given year, while GREET and TEDB are static. SGS has performed an analysis of physical properties on nineteen samples of gasoline, methanol, ethanol, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tertbutyl alcohol (TBA) in different blending ratio. The first product refined from cr… �V~3�a����c4aF��"�#2�Y-��߿.8¸�H2�o�ߙ_4�2�7�0�����`��}`��;�/2_X�0��#S�MoO۽2�۹�4q(4y* �iҹj�m �$�S�k�c��{�Q����uC6NLhh���Qشꆒ�D��o��Dl9�8�����̄�ф�B&���Y1����%i�����Z:�MkD5�Y�=�}z*���"���%a5k��%^;�S���rUf����k��`f.��v&P\cc�Y���E�棃�Z�T2���]����b�g�f�Eߖ�҉:�p��̊ n\�:�\VOߪ�t-�g�Y���ML�M[. x��ݎǕ���}��%��n`!8V��8�d��"�c����*3#'΅�%o�G�ߩ�nvU��jM� ����u��|�9�M���5��o��I���~����%_��A%���\�,�m�'E��lۖ�ɓ������F�mW��y�����Õ�@5ٶ�����"��|�Z��ȶy��>h�mYN~`�(���E�n{'V(�f�L�hV(���O�`���ƺ�Ǥ��h�uU�8��n�ݪ:��J��n�m]ʉCm]ٓ*�'u!g7���~R*�g��.���~�:�����:��S[v��9B��=Z������[6ն:�Ib�-�'xh��w*eUl�cj�5���:��Om���nGm։)`z�C�*�f�/dn�ڢ���A Information regarding the chemical identity of fuel oils is located in Table 3-l. Information on the composition of selected fuel oils, specifically fuel oil no. 0 Create a custom chart comparing fuel properties and characteristics for multiple fuels. The refined products were used in Łukasiewicz’s kerosene lamp, as well as in artificial asphalt, machine oil and lubricants. 0000019833 00000 n ! Wanted in Gasoline Properties. 0000000016 00000 n Conventional gasoline is mostly a blended mixture of more than 200 different hydrocarbon liquids ranging from those containing 4 carbon atoms to those containing 11 or 12 carbon atoms. bul��9Ro�b6����T���������/2�]������qw���=$�w��O���D8b�m���kX��4d &��=� -$�E`�� c9�Z���Ͷ*�V~�H��Y�i�Kg�S�$F�]���~�s��� �ԟ��f��>ᄬJ��p�ϒ�M^��q}.Q���[Iu�jDg������3��%@K-n�(pw��O���KV>�w���w��Xꊼ�Ve��q�r�m�$������T��m�*;���7�Fo��۩�ka������\)���Oڋ������Ñ�:�+ՠŃ[������.�1�Bʶ�o&}�Ws u����z��_�����~w�U�ES$�7��[�f����ے�"������X&���������������� j �[OT�n�,�1_�g�$Z���S��U8��xH^`���3H7�0O�����W]��i�~^%�V.��\&�M�4�/^߿Z�W�k,B�?���7m���W����0�Kҫ�O�“����ʊ�2��B�ճ���q�a���(��)]�9�>�/^���Y>�LJ)���\����a��U��n�UN��� �_ՠ���:PZ�ۦr�e8��WW��l>�h��kB��p5ɝ�7~}���`�fMBe�U�y���Fo����n�寿�1Q A high temperature fuel gas/oxygen flame produces a quick increase of temperature on the surface of the work piece. In other settings, mostly unreactive. 0000014299 00000 n x�b```f``������������b�,S���8������᫟� Gasoline: 60: 1.32: 4.9e-6: 16: 680: 4.6e-7: Mercury: 68: 26.3: 1.25e-6: 20: 13600: 1.15e-7 : Gases (at standard atmospheric pressure, i.e. 345 0 obj <>stream %PDF-1.3 Phase diagram included. 0000005020 00000 n tables . figures . [. fuel properties (attributes). Properties of Various Ideal Gases (at 300 K) It is clear then that gasoline comes from very varied sources and that provided certain specifications are met the origin will be irrelevant to the final user. table 2 – refinery produced gasoline components . v (greek letter nu) = kinematic viscosity (units are length squared/time). Table A–20 Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO 2 Table A–21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO Table A–22 Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H 2 Table A–23 Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H 2 O Table A–24 Ideal-gas properties of monatomic oxygen, O Table A–25 Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH Table A–26 Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at 25°C, 1 atm Table A–27 Properties … 303 0 obj <> endobj 0000002884 00000 n The properties of diesel fuel are at times varied from other fuels such as gasoline, however there are also some similarities such as the fact that they both burn in a fuel cylinder to make the engine work and it goes without saying that they both power vehicles. ! EU: Fuels: Reference Diesel Fuel. 0000022706 00000 n These data include the following: table 4 – gasoline blend aki-barrel example . Table of gas properties - density, molar mass, gas constant, specific heat, viscosity startxref Table A-22E Ideal Gas Properties of Air 1013 Table A-23E Ideal Gas Properties of Selected Gases 1015 Table A-24E Constants for the van der Waals, Redlich–Kwong, and Benedict–Webb–Rubin Equations of State 1019 Table A-25E Thermochemical Properties of Selected Substances at 5378R and 1 atm. 0000013040 00000 n properties of methanol, as well as how these properties affect the different types of existing engines in the market. 0000010617 00000 n Gasoline/E10 Low Sulfur Diesel Biodiesel Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Electricity Ethanol/E100 Hydrogen Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Methanol Propane (LPG) !!!!!10/29/2014! 0000029969 00000 n Nearly pure bioethanol is used for new 'versatile fuel vehicles' (E80fuel - only has 20% gasoline, mainly as a denaturaliser). Ideal Gas Tables. The fuel property data are reported to EPA for batches of gasoline produced at refineries or imported into the U.S. The following topic lists properties that apply to the table object and table fields and, in some cases, to the table extension object as specified below. The beginnings of the petrochemical industry date back to the 1850s. %��������� 0000005132 00000 n 0000013134 00000 n 0000013320 00000 n A summary table of fuel properties for normal combustion in air can also be found there. EES provides built-in thermophysical property data for the fluids listed below. 0000004681 00000 n 0000002767 00000 n Ideal Gas Process Derivation. Specific Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas. Nineteen samples The features listed below must be present in gasoline. 0000013413 00000 n All of the fuel oil classes discussed in this Profile are refined from crude petroleum and may be 0000011300 00000 n Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems. 0000007835 00000 n The typical composition of gasoline hydrocarbons (% volume) is as follows: 4-8% alkanes; 2-5% alkenes; 25-40% isoalkanes; 3-7% cycloalkanes; l-4% cycloalkenes; and 20-50% total aromatics (0.5-2.5% benzene) (IARC 1989). 0000015413 00000 n 0000007367 00000 n In English, units density is expressed in pounds mass/cubic foot (lbm/ft3). Thermodynamic Properties Tables and Charts. Gasoline. table 4 – u.s. capacity changes . Fuel properties 4 . For natural gases we are also most interested in the Gas Formation Volume Factor, B g, and the Gas Viscosity, μ g, as these properties strongly influence gas storage (and accumulation) and gas flow.For most reservoir engineering calculations, the gas formation volume factor (and Gas Compressibility, c g, and Gas Density, ρ g) can be determined from the Real Gas Law, Equation … Propane - Density and Specific Weight - Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of propane, C 3 H 8 , at temperatures ranging from -187 to 725 °C (-305 to 1300 °F) at atmospheric and higher pressure - Imperial and SI Units 0000003329 00000 n 0000015273 00000 n The symbol for density is ρ . It has an initial boiling point at atmospheric pressure of about 35 °C (95 °F) and a final boiling point of about 200 °C (395 °F). Thermodynamic Properties of Steam. Create your own analysis by exploring the dataset in either the chart or the table below. need of engine modifications. Fluid Property Information . Symbols: p (greek letter rho) = Density (units are mass/volume). 0000012304 00000 n Properties of Fuels (a) Propert y Gaso Dies No.2 el Fuel MethanolEthanol MTBE Propane Compresse Natural Gas d Biodiesel Chemical Formula C4 C 8 to C25 CH3OH (CH3)3COC C3H8 CH4 (83-9 C2H6 (1-1 9%), 3%) H2 C12-C22 FAME Molecular Weight 10 0–105 ~200 32.04 46.07 88 44.1 16.04 ~292(q) Composition, Weight % 0000010746 00000 n Some of these features of a portion protecting a portion of the engine while improving the performance of the motor is also required for the vehicle’s safety. %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000013227 00000 n

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